Any of the numerous spiritual movements known as neo-paganism that aim to resurrect the old polytheistic religions of Europe and the Middle East. These movements are closely related to contemporary witchcraft and ritual magic. Although frequently in purposefully eclectic and reconstructionist ways, Neo-Paganism differs. It strives to resurrect true pantheons and rites of ancient cultures by having a particularly meditative and celebratory attitude.

Neopaganism, also known as Neo-Paganism, is a general term that refers to a wide range of spiritual activities often adopted from pre-Christian or anti-Christian faiths. Its literal translation is “new paganism” or “revived paganism.” Wicca, various iterations of Greek and Roman polytheism, Celtic druidism, and numerous New Age religions are all considered to constitute Neopaganism. These views were largely unheard of and considered countercultural before the 1960s. Neopaganism has been able to thrive due to shifting perspectives on counterculture and a rising animosity toward Christianity. Especially when combined with other religious ideas.

Neopaganism typically adopts a modern, if not postmodern, viewpoint despite being inspired by ancient history. These systems’ “gods” and “goddesses” are not always viewed as literal creatures. In general, relativism and have-your-way spirituality are preferred above dogma. Neopagans take these things seriously on their own terms and have real faith in whatever truths they assert do exist. Others act maliciously because they despise conventional, Christian, or Western values.
It is impossible to give a single statement of belief that can be applied fairly across the board because there are so many variations of neopaganism. The few ideas that almost all neopagan systems share lead to a less coherent and more varied range of viewpoints. These themes include relativism, inclusivism, and the rejection of creeds.

Most neopaganism is relativistic; each person’s reality determines what is true. This makes it possible to take a spiritual and moral issue in a personally tailored way. However, relativism also contradicts the law of non-contradiction, a fundamental tenet of logic. It is not an issue for two neopagans to hold opposing opinions regarding the reality of the Greek goddess Athena. However, one of these two must be logically false. A similar issue arises when making moral and ethical assertions.

Another recurring motif in neopagan faiths is inclusivism. The inclusiveness principle holds that almost all interpretations of religion are equally valid. Of course, monotheistic beliefs like Christianity are not often included in this welcoming stance. In fact, monotheism is commonly viewed in Neopaganism as the only or one of the few inappropriate forms of spirituality. Neo-paganism is “polytheistic” in theory, even though not all of its adherents have the same set of gods or any other gods. Like relativism, inclusivism creates a contradiction issue. Spiritual and moral concepts that are diametrically opposed cannot both be true.

Anti-realism is the denial of creeds or any official, legally enforceable definition of belief and behavior. This is merely the result of relativism and inclusivism in Neopaganism. This method rejects the notion that there is a “right” set of beliefs. Therefore, even neopagans of supposedly similar faiths may have radically different views on behaving, perceiving, or conversing about such ideas. Neopaganism rejects dogmatic creeds in line with its anti-Christian and countercultural elements.
In the decades following World War II, Neopaganism flourished, especially in Scandinavia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. One of the most significant Neopagan movements, the Church of All Worlds, is centered on worshiping the earth-mother goddess.

Other notable Neopagan movements include Feraferia, which is based on ancient Greek religion and is also centered on goddess worship, and Pagan Way, a nature religion centered on goddess worship and the seasons. The Reformed Druids of North America, the Church of the Eternal Source, which has revived ancient Egyptian religion, and the Viking Some feminists receptive to feminine deity personifications started showing interest in witchcraft and NeoPaganism in the late 1970s.